让特朗普纠结了半年!巴黎协定你真的了解吗?

2018-01-12 03:52

继去年6月份宣布退出《巴黎气候协定》(以下简称《巴黎协定》)之后,本周三(1月10日),特朗普又称美国可能“重返”巴黎协定,时隔半年,为何会出现这样的转折?今天Yee君给大家说一说《巴黎协定》那些事儿。


本文来自公众号 译﹒世界(ID:yeeworld)


President Donald Trump said that the US could "go back" into the Paris climate deal on Wednesday - having withdrawn America from the global accord last year.

美国总统特朗普1月10日称,美国可能“重返”《巴黎协定》。美国于去年退出了该全球性协定。


"We could conceivably go back in ... I feel very strongly about the environment," said the President during a joint news conference with Norway's Prime Minister Erna Solberg.

特朗普在与挪威首相埃尔娜·索尔贝格举行的联合记者会上表示:“可以想象我们会重返该协定。我非常关注环境。”

美国总统特朗普与挪威首相埃尔娜·索尔贝格出席联合记者会

The agreement was signed under former President Barack Obama's administration in December 2015 by nearly 200 countries to curb global carbon emissions and contain global warming to 2℃.

2015年12月,在美国前总统奥巴马执政期间,全球近200个国家签订了该协定,以控制全球碳排放,将全球气温升高幅度控制在2℃的范围之内。


Mr Trump began the withdrawal process in June last year but it will not officially conclude per the terms of United Nations-brokered agreement until just before the 2020 US election.

去年6月,特朗普宣布启动美国退出《巴黎协定》的程序,但根据由联合国促成的该协定的规定,正式退出也许要等到2020年美国大选前才能生效。


Neil Bhatiya, a researcher at the DC-based think tank Center for a New American Security, said, the administration has not been able to articulate a criticism of the Paris agreement that reflects what the agreement actually says. He explained that the US "has a lot of flexibility" in determining exactly how to reduce emissions to meet the agreed-upon targets in the Paris accord.

位于华盛顿的新美国安全智库中心的研究人员Neil Bhatiya表示,美国政府并未明确地就《巴黎协定》的具体内容进行评论。他说,美国在决定究竟如何减排以实现《巴黎协定》的既定目标方面“具有很大的弹性”。


Also, ahead of the signing the Obama administration's team had been insistent on language which would make the agreement entirely voluntary and not make the Paris Agreement a treaty - which would have required Congressional approval and been legally binding. In other words, the accord is entirely voluntary.

同时,奥巴马政府团队在签署协定之前,力求在措辞上将其变为自愿性协定,而非条约,因为条约需要得到国会的批准,并且受法律约束。也就是说,这个协定完全是自愿性的。


The leaders of France, Germany and Italy issued a joint statement voicing “regret” about Trump’s move, promising to redouble their efforts to implement the Paris agreement and asserting that it cannot be renegotiated.

法国、德国和意大利国家领导人发表了联合声明称,对特朗普此举感到“遗憾”,同时承诺将加倍努力执行《巴黎协定》,并表示协定的内容不容重新协商。


“We deem the momentum generated in Paris in December 2015 irreversible and we firmly believe that the Paris Agreement cannot be renegotiated, since it is a vital instrument for our planet, societies and economies,” read the statement from French President Emmanuel Macron, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Italian Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni.
法国总统马克龙、德国总理默克尔和意大利总理真蒂洛尼在声明中称:“我们认为2015年12月签订的巴黎协定所带来的势头不可逆转,我们坚信协定不容重新协商,因为它对我们的地球、社会和经济至关重要。”


It was not clear from his comments on Wednesday whether he has embarked on any attempt to renegotiate America's terms.

在特朗普10日的表态中,尚不清楚他是否已经开始尝试就关于美国的条款重新谈判。


French President Emmanuel Macron in December said he would not agree to a renegotiation but was hopeful the US would return to the accord.

去年12月,法国总统埃马纽埃尔·马克龙表示,他不同意重新谈判,但希望美国重返《巴黎协定》。


Last September, the US was present as an observer when environment ministers from about 30 countries discussed key issues relating to the Paris agreement in Montreal, Canada.

去年9月,30余国的环境部长在加拿大蒙特利尔讨论与《巴黎协定》有关的重要事宜时,美国以观察国身份出席了会议。


Analysts have said the US withdrawal from the Paris agreement makes it more difficult for the world to reach the goals that it set for itself in the Paris agreement.

分析人士表示,美国的退出使整个世界完成《巴黎协定》制定的目标变得更加困难。


那么,让特朗普态度如此反复无常、全世界都在关注的《巴黎协定》到底是什么?为何如此重要?

2015年12月12日,在巴黎北部市郊的布尔歇展览中心,时任法国外交部长法比尤斯在巴黎气候变化大会上落锤,标志着巴黎气候协定的达成

The deal unites all the world's nations in a single agreement on tackling climate change for the first time in history.

《巴黎协定》有史以来首次将世界上所有国家联合起来,达成关于应对气候变化的单一协定。


Coming to a consensus among nearly 200 countries on the need to cut greenhouse gas emissions is regarded by many observers as an achievement in itself and has been hailed as "historic".

近200个国家就削减温室气体排放的必要性达成共识,许多观察国认为这本身就是一项成就,并且具有历史意义。

Pledges thus far could see global temperatures rise by as much as 2.7℃, but the agreement lays out a roadmap for speeding up progress.

依据各国目前所做出的承诺,可将全球气温上升幅度控制在2.7℃左右,但巴黎协定为尽快实现控温制定了路线图。

● To keep global temperatures "well below" 2.0℃ (3.6℉) above pre-industrial times and "endeavour to limit" them even more, to 1.5

与工业化前的水平相比,全球气温上升幅度维持在2℃以下,力争将上升幅度进一步限制在1.5℃以内。


● To limit the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by human activity to the same levels that trees, soil and oceans can absorb naturally, beginning at some point between 2050 and 2100

限制人类活动的温室气体排放量,在2050年到2100年之间实现人类活动排放与自然吸收(树木、土壤、海洋)之间的平衡。


● To review each country's contribution to cutting emissions every five years so they scale up to the challenge

每5年审查各国对减排的贡献,帮助各国提高应对挑战的力度。


● For rich countries to help poorer nations by providing "climate finance" to adapt to climate change and switch to renewable energy.

较富裕国向相对落后的国家提供“气候资金”,帮助他们适应气候变化,改用可再生能源。

The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 set emission cutting targets for a handful of developed countries, but the US pulled out and others failed to comply.

1997 年的《京都议定书》为几十个发达国家设定了减排目标,但是美国退出了,其他国家也未能遵守。


However, scientists point out that the Paris accord must be stepped up if it is to have any chance of curbing dangerous climate change.

然而,科学家指出,如果想遏制危险的气候变化,就必须加紧落实《巴黎协定》。


The national pledges by countries to cut emissions are voluntary, and arguments over when to revisit the pledges - with the aim of taking tougher action - have been a stumbling block in the talks.

各国自愿做出了减排承诺,而何时重新审视这些承诺以采取更有力的行动,对此的争论一直是各方会谈的绊脚石。


The pact promises to make an assessment of progress in 2018, with further reviews every five years.

协定承诺在2018年对当前进展进行评估,之后每五年进行一次更深入的审查。


As analysts point out, Paris is only the beginning of a shift towards a low-carbon world, and there is much more to do.

有分析人士指出,《巴黎协定》只是向低碳世界转变的开端,下一步还有更多事情要做。


"Paris is just the starting gun for the race towards a low-carbon future," says WWF-UK Chief Executive David Nussbaum.

世界自然基金会英国分会首席执行官大卫•努斯鲍姆说:“《巴黎协定》只是冲向低碳未来的发令枪。”


Prof John Shepherd of the National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, says the agreement includes some welcome aspirations but few people realise how difficult it will be to achieve the goals.

南开普敦大学海洋学中心教授约翰•谢泼德表示,虽然《巴黎协定》的愿景受人欢迎,但很少有人意识到实现这些目标有多难。


早在2015年12月12日巴黎气候变化大会上,中国气候变化事务特别代表解振华就发言说:


“With unremitting efforts of all parties, we adopted here an equitable and reasonable, comprehensive and balanced, ambitious, durable and effective, and legally binding Paris Agreement,” said Xie.

“经过大家的不懈努力达成的巴黎协定是一个公平合理、全面平衡、富有雄心、持久有效、具有法律约束力的协定。”


去年6月2日,在特朗普宣布退出《巴黎协定》后,中国外交部发言人华春莹也表明了中方立场↓


“The Paris Agreement is a hard-won result which represents the broadest consensus of the international community and should be cherished and upheld by all parties. 

“《巴黎协定》凝聚了国际社会应对气候变化的最广泛的共识,各方应共同珍惜和维护这一来之不易的成果。


人类只有一个地球,全世界的小伙伴们且行且珍惜吧~~~

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