BBC公布198国寿命报告 测测你还能活多久?

2018-05-17 04:41

年龄和寿命一直是小伙伴们关注的问题。日前,BBC公布了关于人类寿命的9大真相,涵盖全世界198个国家的最新预期寿命数据。本期为 “双语·智库”第二十七期,Yee君将带你了解与寿命相关的那些事儿。文末还有寿命计算器,欢迎来测~~



 来自公众号译﹒世界(ID:yeeworld)


Women outlive men in 195 countries and in Russia they do so by 11 years. Ethiopians are living 19 years longer than in 1990 and people in the countries with the highest life expectancy live a staggering 34 years longer than those with the lowest.

全世界195个国家的女性比男性活得更久,俄罗斯的女性比男性平均多活11年。埃塞俄比亚人比1990年寿命增加19岁,世界上预期寿命最长的国家和预期寿命最短的国家竟相差34岁。


These are just some of the findings from the BBC's life expectancy calculator, which uses data from the Global Burden of Disease project by the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). We have shared our findings in the charts below.

以上这些关于预期寿命的调查结果是BBC基于卫生计量与评估研究所的“全球疾病负担”项目中的数据而得出的。下面我们一起来看看有哪些调查结果。

全球预期寿命比1990年延长7岁


Global life expectancy has risen more than seven years since 1990, equivalent to a year gained every three-and-a-half years. People around the world are living longer thanks in part to lower death rates from heart disease in high-income countries and fewer child deaths in low-income countries. Improved health care, better sanitation and medical advances in treating diseases have also contributed to the rise.

全球预期寿命比1990年增长逾7岁,相当于每3.5年增长1岁。世界各地人民的寿命都有所增加,其中一部分原因是高收入国家的心脏病死亡率降低,低收入国家的儿童死亡人数减少。卫生保健水平的提高、环境卫生的改善、治疗疾病的医学进步也是重要原因。


Healthy life expectancy - the number of years you can expect to be in good health - also rose by 6.3 years. However, the rate of global growth has started to ease off again.

健康预期寿命——一个人在完全健康状态下生存的平均年数——也增加了6.3岁。然而,全球预期寿命的增速又开始放缓。

全球预期寿命最长的20个国家


Fourteen of the top 20 countries for life expectancy are in Europe, but East Asia tops the pile overall: people born today in Japan and Singapore can expect to live to 84 years old.

全球预期寿命最长的20个国家中有14个是欧洲国家,但东亚位居榜首:日本和新加坡的新生儿预计平均寿命将达84岁。


As for the home nations, England just about sneaks into the top 20 with a life expectancy of 81 years, while Northern Ireland comes in at 32 and Wales 34, both with 80 years. Scotland ranks 42nd out of 198 countries with a life expectancy of 79 years.

而对于英国来说,英格兰刚刚跻身第20名,预期寿命81岁,北爱尔兰和威尔士均以80岁分别位列第32名和第34名。苏格兰在198个国家中排名第42,人均79岁。

预期寿命垫底的20个国家


All but two of the bottom 20 countries are from Africa.

垫底的20个国家中,18个来自非洲。


Children born in 2016 in Lesotho and the Central African Republic - which has been ravaged by civil war - have a life expectancy of only 50 years, 34 fewer than those born in Japan.

2016年出生于莱索托和中非共和国的儿童,在内战的蹂躏下,预期寿命仅为50岁,比日本出生的儿童少34岁。


Meanwhile, decades of war, drought and lawlessness make Afghanistan the only Asian country near the bottom, with a life expectancy of only 58.

与此同时,由于数十年的战争、干旱以及缺少法律制约,阿富汗成为唯一一个几乎垫底的亚洲国家,预期寿命仅为58岁。

东欧国家性别差异较大,男性和女性预期寿命的差距


Women outlive men in 195 out of 198 countries, and on average by six years.

在198个国家中,195个国家的女性比男性长寿,平均多活六年。


However, in some countries that gap is as much as 11.

不过,在一些国家中,男女寿命差距高达11年。


As the chart above shows, many of the biggest gender differences are in Eastern Europe and Russia, where comparatively low male life expectancy has been explained by alcoholism and poor working conditions.

如上图所示,东欧和俄罗斯的性别差异最大,酗酒和恶劣的工作条件是男性预期寿命相对较低的原因。


The three countries where men outlive women are the Republic of Congo, Kuwait and Mauritania.

男性比女性长寿的三个国家是刚果共和国、科威特和毛里塔尼亚。

哪些国家的预期寿命增长幅度最大?


Since 1990, life expectancy has improved in 96% of countries.

自1990年以来,96%的国家的预期寿命有所增长。


Back then, people born in 11 countries would not be expected to reach 50, yet this milestone was reached by every country in 2016.

1990年,11个国家的人可能活不过50岁。2016年,所有国家的预期寿命都达到了这个数字。


Six of those 10 biggest improvements have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia, still recovering from famine in 1990, had a life expectancy of only 47. Babies born there in 2016 could expect to live 19 years longer thanks partly to significant decreases in respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases, such as rotavirus and cholera.

10个涨幅最大的国家中,有6个在撒哈拉以南非洲地区。1990年,埃塞俄比亚正处于饥荒恢复期,预期寿命仅为47岁。由于呼吸道感染和腹泻疾病(如轮状病毒和霍乱)的显著减少,2016年出生的婴儿预计能多活19岁。

预期寿命减少的国家


As well as having some of the biggest rises in life expectancy, sub-Saharan Africa also has four of the eight countries where life expectancy has fallen since 1990.

预期寿命增长最为显著的几个国家均位于撒哈拉以南非洲,但1990年至今预期寿命减少的8个国家中,有4个同样位于这片地区。


The biggest drop was in Lesotho, where according to UN estimates, one in four people are living with HIV - the second highest rate in the world.

预期寿命减少最多的国家是莱索托。据联合国估计,该国每四个人中就有一人感染艾滋病毒,染病率高居世界第二。


Babies born in neighbouring South Africa in 2016 can expect to live to 62 - two years fewer than their compatriots born 25 years before, in 1990. During this period, the country has struggled with the effects of a widespread HIV epidemic.

于2016年在莱索托邻国南非出生的婴儿预期寿命为62岁,比25年前(1990年)出生的南非人预期寿命减少了2年。在此期间,南非也受到了艾滋病毒肆虐的影响。

预期寿命差距较大的相邻国家


Life expectancy can be surprisingly localised - some neighbouring countries had almost 20 years between them.

预期寿命的地方性令人惊奇,有些相邻国家之间的预期寿命甚至相差近20岁。


For example, cross the border from China into Afghanistan, and life expectancy falls by more than 18 years.

以中国和阿富汗为例,阿富汗的预期寿命比中国短至少18年。


And Mali - which has suffered years of terrorism and civil strife this decade - has a life expectancy of only 62, but people born in neighbouring Algeria can expect to live to 77.

多年恐怖主义和近十年来的内乱导致马里的预期寿命只有62岁,但在其邻国阿尔及利亚出生的人,预期寿命可达77岁。

战争对预期寿命的影响


Back in 2010, Syria was ranked 65th in the world for life expectancy, in the top third of countries. However, years of unrelenting war have seen it drop to 142nd place in 2016.

2010年叙利亚的预期寿命在世界排名第65位,位列所有国家的前三分之一。然而,连年战争导致叙利亚的预期寿命在2016年时跌至第142位。


Meanwhile, at the height of the Rwandan genocide in 1994, life expectancy at birth was only 11 years.

此外,在1994年卢旺达种族大屠杀最严重时期,出生时的预期寿命仅为11岁。

饥荒和自然灾害对预期寿命的影响


North Korea suffered a devastating famine between 1994 and 1998 that knocked several years off its life expectancy until the early 2000s.

1994-1998年间朝鲜遭遇严重饥荒,导致其预期寿命连续多年减少,直到20世纪初才有所好转。


More than 200,000 people are estimated to have died from the Haiti earthquake in 2010. However, life expectancy did recover the following year.

2010年海地地震致20万余人遇难,该国预期寿命在次年有所恢复。


那么问题来了:中国人的预期寿命在全世界排第几?


BBC并没有直接公布TOP20和BOTTOM20以外国家的排名,而是提供了一个在线测算小程序!点击文末左下角“阅读原文”可进行测试哦~






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