语言学大师韩礼德去世 他还有段中国缘

2018-04-18 03:05

一代语言学大师、系统功能语言学开山鼻祖韩礼德(Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday)教授于英国当地时间415日晚8时左右逝世,享年93岁。

韩礼德教授是英国当代语言学家,也是世界两大主要语言学派之一的系统功能语言学的创始人,世界语言学界的杰出代表和语言学大师。他的语言学框架在当代世界语言学及应用语言学界具有广泛和深远影响。


韩礼德教授一生对语言学贡献颇丰,他的名字也为语言研习者所熟知,他甚至和中国还有着不解之缘。今天,Yee君就和大家一起对他的生平成就做一回顾,缅怀这位受人尊敬的语言学大师。

Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday (often M.A.K. Halliday; 13 April 1925 – 15 April 2018) was an English-born linguist who developed the internationally influential systemic functional linguistic model of language. His grammatical descriptions go by the name of systemic functional grammar (SFG). Halliday describes language as a semiotic system, "not in the sense of a system of signs, but a systemic resource for meaning". Halliday describes himself as a generalist, meaning that he has tried "to look at language from every possible vantage point", and has described his work as "wander[ing] the highways and byways of language". However, he has claimed that "to the extent that I favoured any one angle, it was the social: language as the creature and creator of human society".

迈克尔·亚历山大·柯克伍德·韩礼德(通常缩写为M.A.K. Halliday;1925年4月13日-2018年4月15日)是一名英国语言学家,他创立了具有国际影响力的系统功能语言模型。他的语法描述被称为“系统功能语法”。韩礼德认为语言是一个符号系统,不过所谓符号系统“不应当看作是一组记号,而应当被看作是一套系统化的意义源泉”。韩礼德称自己为多面手,意思是他喜欢“从各种可能的角度和路径研究语言”。

来自公众号译﹒世界(ID:yeeworld)

Biography

生平


Halliday was born and raised in England. His fascination for language was nurtured by his parents: his mother, Winifred, had studied French, and his father, Wilfred, was a dialectologist, a dialect poet, and an English teacher with a love for grammar and Elizabethan drama.

韩礼德在英国出生长大,受父母影响对语言产生浓厚兴趣。他的母亲威尼弗雷德从事法语研究,父亲威尔弗雷德是方言学家、方言诗人、英语教师,热爱语法和伊丽莎白时代的戏剧。


In 1942, Halliday volunteered for the national services' foreign language training course. He was selected to study Chinese on the strength of his success in being able to differentiate tones.

1942年,服役期间的韩礼德自愿参加了外语培训课程,因其能够成功分辨声调,被选派学习汉语。


In 1945 he took a BA honours degree in modern Chinese language and literature (Mandarin) through the University of London. This was an external degree, with his studies conducted in China. He then lived for three years in China, where he studied under Luo Changpei at Peking University and under Wang Li at Lingnan University, before returning to take a PhD in Chinese Linguistics at Cambridge under the supervision of Gustav Hallam and then J. R. Firth.

1945年他在伦敦大学获得现代中国语言文学荣誉学士学位,这是一项校外学位,因为他是在中国完成的学业。接下来他在中国生活了三年,从师于北京大学罗常培教授和岭南大学王力教授,随后回国,先后在剑桥大学古斯塔夫·哈勒姆和J. R.弗斯两位教授的指导下获得汉语语言学博士学士。

语言学家罗常培

语言学家王力


Having taught languages for 13 years, he changed his field of specialisation to linguistics, and developed systemic functional linguistics, including systemic functional grammar, elaborating on the foundations laid by his British teacher J.R. Firth and a group of European linguists of the early 20th century, the Prague school. His seminal paper on this model was published in 1961.

韩礼德从事了13年语言教学工作,之后将专业领域转向语言学,使系统功能语言学得到发展,其中包括系统功能语法,在其英国导师弗斯和布拉格学派(20世纪初的一群欧洲语言学家)所提理论的基础上加以详述。他关于该模型的开创性论文于1961年发表。


Halliday's first academic position was Assistant Lecturer in Chinese, at Cambridge University, from 1954 to 1958. In 1958 he moved to Edinburgh, where he was Lecturer in General Linguistics until 1960, and then Reader from 1960 to 1963. From 1963 to 1965, he was the director of the Communication Research Center at University College, London. During 1964, he was also Linguistic Society of America Professor, at Indiana University. From 1965 to 1971 he was Professor of Linguistics at UCL. In 1972–73 he was Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioural Sciences, at Stanford, and in 1973–74 Professor of Linguistics at the University of Illinois. In 1974 he briefly moved back to Britain to be Professor of Language and Linguistics at Essex University. In 1976 he moved to Australia as Foundation Professor of Linguistics at the University of Sydney, where he remained until he retired in 1987.

韩礼德第一个学术职位是1954年到1958年间,在剑桥大学担任助理中文讲师。1958年,他移居爱丁堡,在爱丁堡大学担任普通语言学讲师;而后在1960年至1963年期间,担任高级讲师。1963年至1965年,韩礼德出任伦敦大学学院交际研究中心主任。1964年,他还是印第安纳大学美国语言学会教授。1965年至1971年,他在伦敦大学学院任语言学教授。1972年至1973年,他是斯坦福大学行为科学高级研究中心研究员;1973至1974年,他是伊利诺伊大学语言学教授。 1974年,他暂时回到英国,任艾塞克斯大学语言和语言学教授。1976年,韩礼德移居澳大利亚,并任悉尼大学语言学创立教授,直至1987年退休。


Halliday worked in various regions of language study, both theoretical and applied, and was especially concerned with applying the understanding of the basic principles of language to the theory and practices of education. He received the status of Emeritus Professor of the University of Sydney and Macquarie University, Sydney, in 1987. He has honorary doctorates from University of Birmingham (1987), York University (1988), the University of Athens (1995), Macquarie University (1996), and Lingnan University (1999).

韩礼德在语言研究的各个领域从事理论和应用方面的工作,尤其关注将对语言基本原理的理解应用于教育的理论和实践。1987年,他获得悉尼大学和麦考瑞大学名誉教授称号。他拥有伯明翰大学(1987年)、约克大学(1988年)、雅典大学(1995年)、麦考瑞大学(1996年)和岭南大学(1999年)的荣誉博士学位。


He died in Sydney of natural causes on 15 April 2018. He was 93 years old.

2018年4月15日,韩礼德于悉尼平静离世,享年93岁。


Linguistic theory and description

语言学理论及描述


Halliday is notable for his grammatical theory and descriptions, outlined in his book An Introduction to Functional Grammar, first published in 1985. A revised edition was published in 1994, and then a third, in which he collaborated with Christian Matthiessen, in 2004. The fourth edition was published in 2014. But Halliday’s conception of grammar – or "lexicogrammar" (a term he coined to argue that lexis and grammar are part of the same phenomenon) – is based on a more general theory of language as a social semiotic resource, or a ‘meaning potential’.

韩礼德以他的语法理论和论述而闻名,具体内容详见他的著作《功能语法入门》,首次出版于1985年。其修订版于1994年出版,2004年,他与克里斯汀·马西森合作推出第三版。2014年第四版面市。但韩礼德的语法概念或词汇语法概念(他创造了这个术语来论证词汇和语法是同一现象的两个部分)是建立在语言的广义理论基础上的,它是一个社会符号源泉或是“意义源泉”。


Halliday follows Hjelmslev and Firth in distinguishing theoretical from descriptive categories in linguistics. He argues that ‘theoretical categories, and their inter-relations, construe an abstract model of language...they are interlocking and mutally defining. The theoretical architecture derives from work on the description of natural discourse, and as such ‘no very clear line is drawn between ‘(theoretical) linguistics’ and ‘applied linguistics’. Thus, the theory ‘is continually evolving as it is brought to bear on solving problems of a research or practical nature’. Halliday contrasts theoretical categories with descriptive categories, defined as "categories set up in the description of particular languages". His descriptive work has been focused on English and Chinese.

韩礼德继承了叶尔姆斯列夫和弗斯的思想,将语言学的理论范畴和描述范畴区分开来。他认为:“理论范畴及它们的相互关系诠释了一个抽象的语言模型……它们环环相扣并互相界定。理论框架是从对日常交谈的描述进行研究而来,就其本身而言,‘理论语言学’和‘应用语言学’之间‘并没有明显的界限’。但是,随着理论在研究和实际生活中的应用,它‘是在不断发展演化的’。”韩礼德将理论范畴和描述范畴进行了对比,将描述范畴定义为“为描述特定语言而设立的范畴”。他的描述性研究主要针对英语和汉语。


His works

韩礼德著作

Explorations in the Functions of Language (1973)《语言功能探索》

System and Function in Language (1976)《语言的系统和功能》

Language as a Social Semiotic (1978)《作为社会符号的语言》

Learning How to Mean (1981)《学习做到有所指》

An Introduction to Functional Grammar (1985)《功能语法导论》

The Language of Early Childhood (2006)《婴幼儿的语言》



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